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Pharm.D. Program - Outcome Ability Goals

Adopted by the College Faculty, May 4, 2007.

These outcome abilities are established to ensure the student's transitional growth across the didactic curriculum and throughout the pharmacy practice experiences resulting in professional competency and the ability to provide patient-centered care by meeting the criteria of good science, professional skills, attitudes, behaviors, values, and evidence-based practice.

  1. Conceptual Competence: The student must demonstrate evidence-based knowledge of the following theoretical foundations of the profession and apply these to individual practice settings.
    1. Basic anatomy/ physiology
    2. Pathophysiology
    3. Diagnostic methods and decision making
    4. Principles of pharmacology
    5. Pharmacoeconomics/ health outcomes
    6. Relationship between chemical structure and biological activity
    7. Delivery of drugs from various dosage forms
    8. Pharmacotherapy
    9. Complementary therapies
    10. Behavioral modification approaches for promoting treatment adherence and disease prevention.
    11. Drug interactions
    12. Treatment guidelines
    13. Pharmacy law
    14. Principles of management and administration
  2. Scientific Comprehension: The student must demonstrate comprehension of major scientific discoveries and use of the scientific method to make these discoveries.
    1. Basic principles of thermodynamics and kinetics and their role in defining chemical processes.
    2. Basic principles of drug design and the chemical and biochemical mechanisms of drug action.
    3. Basic principles that affect drug release from dosage forms, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicology and the impact of those properties on clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
    4. Fundamental principles involved in maintaining the microbiological purity of compounded dosage forms.
    5. Basic principles of study design.
    6. The application of statistical methodology to study design and the scientific literature.
    7. The relevance of molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, and pharmacogenomics and apply key principles to disease states and therapeutics.
  3. Mathematical Competence: The student must be able to use mathematical variables to analyze physical, biological, and socioeconomic phenomena.
    1. Perform error-free mathematical calculations with regard to drug dosing and pharmacokinetics.
    2. Perform error-free mathematical calculations with regard to compounding dosage forms.
    3. Calculate costs of providing products, services, and care.
  4. Integrative (Practice-related) Competence: The student must be able to meld theory and abilities in the practice setting to enhance positive patient outcomes.
    1. Provide patient-centered pharmaceutical care.
    2. Promote health improvement and disease prevention.
    3. Critically evaluate patient data, literature sources, and drug products.
    4. Provide specific, sound, cost effective, evidence-based drug and healthcare recommendations.
    5. Design, implement, and evaluate patient specific pharmacotherapeutic regimens.
    6. Select the proper drug, dose, and dosage form for a specific patient.
    7. Design strategies to monitor patients' drug regimens for therapeutic and toxic effects of medications.
    8. Design risk reduction strategies to ensure patient safety and prevent medication errors and adverse drug events.
    9. Design strategies to avoid or manage drug interactions and adverse drug events.
    10. Identify and implement strategies to encourage patient adherence to therapeutic interventions.
    11. Describe the fundamental concepts and practical considerations necessary to assure the quality of pharmaceutical products.
    12. Demonstrate prescription/drug order preparation and compounding functions for parenteral and nonparenteral preparations.
    13. Demonstrate techniques necessary to maintain the microbiological purity of sterile products and employ associated quality assurance strategies.
    14. Manage informatics and medication use systems.
    15. Apply key business principles, including continuous quality improvement, to the management of pharmacy services, personnel, and obtaining compensation.
  5. Critical Thinking and Decision Making Abilities: The student must examine issues rationally, logically, and coherently; and shall acquire, evaluate, and synthesize information and knowledge relevant to an identified problem; and make sound decisions in both familiar and unfamiliar contexts.
    1. Synthesize information in order to draw logical conclusions.
    2. Provide evidence-based support for arguments, recommendations, and solutions.
    3. Demonstrate the ability to make sound decisions given complex scenarios in a time-constrained environment.
  6. Communication Skills and Abilities: The student must read, write, speak, listen, and use media, and appropriate technologies to send and respond effectively to communications for varied audiences and purposes.
    1. Demonstrate the ability to present ideas, plans, and data in appropriate written formats to succinctly and effectively communicate with various audiences.
    2. Accurately document recommendations and interventions while assuring patient confidentiality.
    3. Provide appropriate patient education/counseling regarding the safe and effective use of drug products.
    4. Provide appropriate education regarding the use of prescription and nonprescription devices.
    5. Effectively and efficiently perform patient interviews, medication histories, medication reconciliation, and identify drug-related issues and problems.
    6. Interact with other pharmacists, physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals to achieve positive patient outcomes.
    7. Interact with technicians and other support staff to develop and maintain a positive and productive work environment.
    8. Effectively present information to colleagues, other healthcare practitioners, and the general public, regarding drug therapy and related topics.
    9. Effectively use information systems and computer software to enhance the delivery of pharmaceutical care.
  7. Responsible use of professional values and ethical principles: The student must demonstrate sensitivity to personal values and ethical principles in professional and social contexts.
    1. Exhibit professional behavior at all times in congruence with the pharmacist code of ethics.
    2. Describe strategies to work through ethical dilemmas in the provision of pharmaceutical care.
    3. Maintain professional competence through sound judgment, ethical behavior, adherence to legal guidelines and socioeconomic principles.
    4. Demonstrate values consistent with the provision of quality healthcare to all patient groups and populations.
    5. Treat patients and co-workers with respect.
  8. Social Awareness and Social Responsibility: The student must demonstrate an understanding of self, the strengths and challenges of cultural diversity, and the historic responses of society in times of rapid change.
    1. Demonstrate awareness of key issues and debates in healthcare.
    2. Demonstrate cultural competence that includes awareness of the impact that cultural, social, and ethnic differences can play in the provision of healthcare and the workplace.
    3. Recognize and address health literacy issues and healthcare disparities.
  9. Professional Abilities and Habits: The student must effectively self-assess and satisfy learning and continuous professional development on an ongoing basis.
    1. Acquire new information to answer specific questions from patients, colleagues, or other healthcare professionals.
    2. Display self-directed learning, acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills to develop and maintain one's competence to provide optimal pharmaceutical care as a template for life-long learning and continued professional development.
    3. Demonstrate the ability to self-assess and take needed steps to achieve competence.
    4. Take an active role in professional and community organizations and promote advocacy for key healthcare and professional initiatives.
    5. Exhibit positive, professional, empathic attitudes and behaviors in all intra- and interprofessional communications.
    6. Demonstrate awareness of and be able to analyze internal and external factors that influence the practice of pharmacy and healthcare policy in an attempt to resolve practice-related problems.
  10. Group Interaction and Citizenship: The student must demonstrate effective interpersonal and intergroup behaviors in a variety of situations and circumstances.
    1. Demonstrate awareness of the roles of various healthcare professionals in multiple healthcare environments.
    2. Participate functionally in team efforts within pharmacy and healthcare groups.
    3. Discuss and remain open to differences of opinion and defend rational opinions that differ from those of other healthcare professionals.
    4. Direct and/or manage other personnel in a pharmacy or healthcare environment.
    5. Display habits of service to one's community and profession.

Requirements and Expected Outcomes of the General Education Component of the Curriculum

A particular focus of the general education course selections will be on developing perspectives from the behavioral, social and humanities areas of knowledge that contribute to student growth as a citizen and a professional, and that also involve the students in developing the outcome abilities adopted by the faculty as curricular goals. The Pre-Pharmacy curriculum identifies the requirements for English and economics coursework as contributing to this outcome. The professional curriculum also provides at least twelve (12) additional credits for elective course opportunities.

The professional curriculum of the College also enables students to continue to develop these general education outcomes. Within their professional education, students will be encouraged to develop a well-rounded scientific and general education perspective as a framework for comprehensive analysis of societal issues as they affect health problems, health care and social services.

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